Project Main Details
Our glorious Dead City which brought life to the Subcontinent.
Now it is time to bring Mohenjo-Daro itself to life.
Our lives and our past
Who and what we were and are
And that is the subject of this film.
MOHENJO- DARO will be a sixty minute documentary that will examine the 5,000 year-old Indus Valley, the cradle of mature civilization in the subcontinent.
The film will focus on the sophisticated ruins of Mohenjo Daro, the nucleus of the civilization, and will trace the glorious history of the local people, comparing contemporary local society to that highly advanced ancient civilization.
The documentary is an important project. I have been working on this project for the last four years, in addition to an intrinsic love and respect of the subject. MOHENJO DARO has the support of numerous scholars and experts, who will contribute their efforts as well. UNESCO's efforts to save Mohenjo-Daro were one of the key events that led the organization to establish World Heritage Sites. 2016-03-15 01:03:19 GMT 2016-03-25 20:00:00 (GMT -05:00) Eastern Time (US & Canada) Yes (click here to learn more about ) Closed 6 5 0 direct invitation(s) have been sent by the voice seeker resulting in 0 audition(s) and/or proposal(s) so far. Voice123 SmartCast is seeking 15 auditions and/or proposals for this project (approx.) Invitations sent by SmartCast have resulted in 6 audition(s) and/or proposal(s) so far.
SCRIPT / VOICE OVER
Vo: Dance, dance, dance, oh great dancing girl from the past… Your footsteps echo through our memories… The dancing girl recounts the story of…
Vo: …one of the oldest civilizations known to mankind.
Vo: Not so far off in the subcontinent lies the home of a city we now call “the mound of the dead.” Mohenjo Daro. But is this city dead, or simply a life that is forgotten?
Vo: The ornate clothing, bangles, and the importance of dance in not something new to South Asia- it has been around for centuries.
Vo: Every great culture has a birthplace. And much of South Asian culture as we know it today can be attributed to…
Vo: …findings from the spectacular city of Mohenjo Daro. But where did this city rise from? It’s home is the Indus Valley Civilization, a world rich in its history and culture.
Vo: Many have never heard of it, others may recollect a few facts about it, but most people are unaware that the Indus Valley Civilization is the fourth greatest urban civilization after Egypt, China, and Mesopotamia. It is amazing what the world doesn’t know about this gem that continues to radiate its meaning in the lives of people globally today.
Vo: Let us look closely at this civilization, let us begin to uncover the mystery of our past- let us go back…
Vo: …so we can simply understand our present. The Indus Valley began in the river plains and adjacent regions in what are now modern days Pakistan and western India.
Vo: Like all great civilizations, it flourished on the banks of a river. Egypt is the gift of the Nile, Sumers rose from the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The Yellow River fed the Chinese Civilization.
Vo: The mighty Indus River was the birthplace of the Indus Valley Civilization. Originating in the Bronze Age, an era devoid of iron, the IVC required a surplus of agricultural production to survive…
Vo: Hence, the Indus was the perfect provider for the soil...
Vo: The river rises in the Himalayas in the Tibet region at an altitude of 1600 feet...The river rises in the Himalayas in the Tibet region at an altitude of 1600 feet…
Vo: …It is fed by the great glacier of the world’s loftiest peak… Flowing in various northwestern territories, the Indus reaches its maturity in the plains…
Vo: …of Sindh in Pakistan- the core of the Indus Valley Civilization
A life-line for many urban towns and small villages, the Indus was the beating heart of the ancient CIVILIZATIONS…
Vo: By far the largest civilization in terms of geographic area, the IVC covers more ground than Egypt and Mesopotamia combined. It spreads over a vast region from the high mountains of Baluchistan and Afghanistan to the coastal regions of Makran, Sindh and Gujurat...
Vo: …It spreads over a vast region from the high mountains of Baluchistan and Afghanistan to the coastal regions of Makran, Sindh and Gujurat.
Vo: The central area runs about 1100 miles east to west and 800 miles north to south. Overall, the vast Indus Valley spread over an area of one million square miles.
Vo: One can imagine its greatness by the fact that one fifth of the world’s population lived in the Indus Valley State. Back then…the citizens could accord it the same status we do to New York, Tokyo and London today.
Vo: Early excavators such as Sir John Marshall dated the IVC between 2500 BC and 1500 BC due to its relations with Akkad in Mesopotamia. Excavators discovered two main sites of the Indus Valley- Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. The IVC is commonly referred to as the Harrapan Civilization since it was the first city discovered.
Vo: Current research has pinpointed more than 10,000 sites in India and over 400 in Pakistan. Based on preliminary investigations more than 30 sites have been excavated- over 18 in India, 13 in Pakistan, 1 in Afghanistan, and 1 in Oman. But without a doubt, historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists can testify to the fact that Mohenjo Daro is the most phenomenal and sophisticated site uncovered.
Vo: Much of the phenomenon lies in the mystique of the city, and also in the challenge it proposes to scholars today. The majority of its ruins are buried under a salt water table- making this mystery even more difficult to crack.
Vo: Upon excavation in 1922, Mohenjo Daro was completely urbanized, unlike any other civilization. It was discovered accidentally in the mid 19th century.
Vo: Early excavation was lead by Sir John Marshall, the director of the archaeology in India at the time.
Vo: But its maturity leaves scholars baffled even today. Many theorists hold strongly to the notion that the city was not imported from other civilizations, but merely flourished on its own.
Vo: Its ruins indicate a superior advancement unseen in any other urban civilization of the time…
Vo: …an advancement that remains alive today in the region…
Vo: …so much so it can seem as if time has simply stopped in and about Mohenjo Daro.
INTERVIEW: Theories of the birth of the civilization.
INTERVIEWING people on various superstition revolved around this ancient city,, located in the province of Sindh in Northern Pakistan.
Vo: Various superstitions revolved around this ancient city, located in the province of Sindh in northern Pakistan. City dwellers used to believe that if one would cross the Stupa, then perhaps a temple or government center, he or she would turn blue.
Vo: We must proceed with caution and uncover the real truths, brick by brick.
Vo: A brilliantly planned city for its time, Mohenjo Daro today appears as if it were crafted by renowned architects. With its cross streets at right angles, and houses aligned in order ensuring an efficient draining system- Mohenjo Daro’s city structure is extremely thought extensive.
Vo: Taking a walk through the city of Mohenjo Daro, one would cover about 5 kilometers in circumference, divided into two distinct parts.
Vo: A unique attribute of this place is its split cities: the Upper and Lower City.
Vo: Today we can understand this division as one of class. It is assumed that the city’s elite resided in the upper town, while commoners lived in the lower one. Built on a clay platform and aligned at all corners’, extending over 400 meters is the upper city.
Vo: Also referred to as the Citadel, the upper city can be compared to the Kremlin, White House or Capitol Hill.
Vo: The Citadel is man-made, rising 72 feet above the rest of the city, so its inhabitants could overlook their domain. The lower city is mound shaped, 1km long and 700km wide.
Vo: Its most distinct feature is the Buddhist Stupa, built in the 2nd century.
Vo: The lower city is mound shaped, 1km long and 700km wide. It is dispersed with houses, shops, and craft workshops.
Vo: Built on a grid plan of straight streets, this design also distinguished Mohenjo Daro from the older settlements of Egypt and Sumers, and likens it to the layouts of modern cities today. The chief thoroughfares ran from north to south and intersecting streets and lanes ran at right to them.
Vo: The entire city of Mohenjo Daro is built on bricks. Baked bricks were utilized for the foundation and bases of walls to ensure protection from water. And mud bricks were used for the upper sections of the architectural plan. A range of brick sizes were used most typically 30x15x7.5 centimeters and 40x20x10 centimeters. It can be said that the art of brick-making sparked from this ancient civilization.
Although these building blocks lie as piles of ruins today, a close look by a keen eye can reveal the remarkable strength and quality of the ancient bricks.
Vo:Although it is the Buddhist Stupa that immediately catches the visitor’s eye in Mohenjo Daro today, there are other provocative sights worth taking in.
Vo: Across the street from the Stupa is a large pool called The Great Bath, measuring 12m by 7m and 2.4m deep. The Bath is made form a layer of bitumen between two layers of brick pointed with like mortar. Without a doubt, the earliest public water tank in the ancient world, it is assumed that the pool was used for ritual bathing the priests.
Vo: On both sides of the bath, flights of stairs are in tact. Not far from the Bath is a well which supplied water into the tank for the people. Although the well was not equipped to fill the tank, the innovative Mohenjodarian masters of hydraulics somehow devised a method of raising water some 300 feet below from the Indus River.
Vo: To the west of The Great Bath is the Granary of the city. Probably used for storage at the time, the wooden structure rested on 27 rectangular brickwork supports, allowing air to circulate freely beneath the goods. The emphasis placed on agricultural reserve is obvious based on the Granary’s close proximity to the well-respected Citadel.
Vo: South of the Great Bath is the Assembly Hall, consisting of a pillared room almost 90 square feet. Some believe that this may have been the bureaucracy’s headquarters.
Vo: Aside from the fortified citadels of the city, Mohenjo Daro is rich and dually practical in its residential planning.
Narrow streets and alleyways branch off from the major streets, leading into more private neighborhoods.
Vo: Many of the brick homes are two stories high with thick walls and high ceilings that ensured cool summers.
Vo: Private houses are oriented towards a central space. The central space provides access to rooms and bathing areas that are not always interconnected. One or two private wells were allocated to a group of homes.
Vo:Altogether, 700 wells have been found in the ancient city. The high number of wells combined with their particular locales, could indicate the need for a discreet and private water source- perhaps used for ritual exercises.
Vo: Besides the private home exists a second residential unit of larger homes. These large abodes are surrounded by small units, resulting in a complex varying in many different sizes or rooms and access routes. The outer units could possibly have been living-work shop spaces for services groups attached to the central large house.
Vo: In exploring a Mohenjodarian home, one can be surprised by the remarkable yet basic utilities that existed in this ancient society. Things that today we take for granted, the citizens of Mohenjo Daro held precious. Almost every home had a stairway leading up.
Vo: Water pipes and chutes within the walls used for the disposing of matter from above have been found.
Vo: Sanitation was superior for the means of the people, which supports the strength of Mohenjo Daro’s advanced sewage system. Whether one is rich or poor, every home was connected to the city-wide sewer system.
Vo: It was a meticulously designed and well maintained system. Bathing platforms and wells were lined with bricks, and small drains transported water away from the wells of the living area to large street drains.
Vo: The street drains were equipped with septic and the streets contained bins for non-liquid waste, which was presumably collected and emptied outside the settlement. No ancient civilization, not even Mesopotamia or Egypt, can compare to the elaborately engineered system at Mohenjo Daro.
Vo: Windows were few and far between within the homes and among the streets. Walls were built to be thick to protect its dwellers from the hot climate.
Vo: Overall, one gets the impression that the inhabitants of Mohenjo Daro were from a well-to-do class, with servants at hand to cook and assist with daily chores. A few kilns and furnaces have been found in homes, but no other sing of non-domestic life has been discovered within the rooms. Pieces of charcoal and ashes found in various domestic excavations indicate the prevalence of kitchens. Basically the house was a series of rooms revolving around a court, in which household activities such as washing and bread making would take place.
Vo: Living a simple utilitarian life, Mohenjodarians were believers in the basics. It seems the aim of city builders was comfort rather than luxury.
Vo: But it is important to understand that the town planning of the city was not simply made in a random fashion. Similar to contemporary society, the urban structure reflected the socio-political nature of the city and its people.
Vo: The ambiance of the lower city has a sense of authoritative control reinforced by small single-roomed buildings positioned systematically on street corners. These could have easily been posts for night watchmen or policemen. Such intricate regulation of residential life can only indicate that some form of government was at play.
Vo: The civilization with its Citadel was divided by class and occupation. The priesthood and aristocrats apparently resided in the upper city and governed those below.
Vo: An institution for learning has also been identified at the top of the citadel. In many ways, Mohenjodarians experienced divisions in society similar to the ones we do today.
Vo: Farmers handed over a large part of their crops to the public granaries. Most probably the ownership of land was restricted, and the tillers of soil perhaps were in direct employ of the city authorities.
Vo: But how did the common people survive? What occupations existed back then? Unlike today, the citizens of Mohenjo Daro did not have a lot of career choices. Those in the lower stratosphere of society were farmers or traders. Take your pick. The city flourished on its agricultural growth. Animal husbandry, hunting and gathering, supplemented their diet.
Vo: If the rainfall or flooding of a specific area was weak during a season, then irrigation from springs or wells was necessary. The “Rabi” crops included wheat, barley, pulses, sesame, peas, vegetables and possibly perennial cotton. The second prominent crop, “Karif,” included cotton, rice, mustard, dates, melon and peas. The farmers used a diversity of methods to maintain control over water for irrigation.
Vo: Water-division channels and dams for trapping soil and moisture were put to use regularly. The unpredictable winter rains of Sindh and its neighboring province Punjab necessitated irrigation for the crops. Various farming utensils have also been uncovered in the ancient land.
Vo: An impressive tool in the shape of a sickle was utilized for cutting crops. The sickle had small Microliths joined together with the help of bitumen which was inserted in the grooves of wooden handles.
Vo: Mohenjo Daro was an agricultural hot bed, but not exclusively for its citizens.
Vo: The business-savvy traders prospered through their extensive links with Mesopotamia, Shortugai in Afghanistan, and Central Asia. Trade included everything from raw materials to luxury goods.
Vo:Merchant ships entered a kiln-burned brick dockyard at high tide through a specially designed channel. On the quay stood warehouses prepared to discharge export items and store imported goods. From this port high-powered vessels set sail to the island of Behrein in the Persian Gulf. Some of the popular trade items consisted of cotton, timber, bangles, beads, imported gold, and precious stones. Though pragmatic in their living, Mohenjodarians used their business acumen in order to flourish as a unified state.
Vo: Extremely accurate weights found in the city also support the consistency of commercial standards upheld by the state. Nearly a complete series of stone weights were preserved in the findings. Made by highly polished pieces of alabaster, limestone, jasper, these stones bear a binary ratio. Common shapes are cubical, semi-cubical, cylindrical and spherical.
SHOW BULLOCK-CART AND THEN DISSOLVE INTO SOMEONE USING IT TODAY.
Vo: Cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats were used for the purposes of Animal Husbandry. The animals were adopted to different types of grazing on grasslands and plains. Similar to all primitive civilizations, fishing and hunting were also the tasks of the common man.
At inland sites, freshwater fish, tortoise, and shellfish prevailed, while marine fish and shellfish were relevant to the coastal sites. The presence of wild fauna at both urban and rural areas indicates the existence of hunting. Animals hunted by the Mohenjodarians include deer, rhino, gazelle, black buck, pigs, and elephants.
Vo: The hunting for the animals meant survival for the citizens- but it is very important to note that the inhabitants of this civilization were peace-loving people. Nothing has been found indicating warfare among the city folk. The weapons excavated were not very formidable ones.
Vo: The known metals weapons include a leaf-shaped flat-sided lance or spear, ax heads, barbed arrow points, and daggers. This testifies to the fact that there was a lack of armies in the area. Metal cleavers, chisels, points, gouges, mirrors, and razors were also common. The quadrangular ax could have been widely used to cut down trees.
Vo:These peace-loving practical folk were also artistic visionaries. The numerous sculptures demonstrate their artistic achievements. Although small in scale, these crafts reveal superb craftsmanship. For the most part they take shape in the form of human figures or animals, most probably religious in nature. The most stunning artifacts from the ancient city include the lithe, gracefully posed copper figure of a dancing girl-
Vo: This figurine emphasizes the importance of dance and freedom of expression during the time. She wears nothing but bangles all along her arms. This in itself is a fashion that exists today in the subcontinent. Terra Cotta bangles were the most common among Mohenjo Daro. They were originally painted with black or red designs. Such ornaments were found in the thousands and were probably worn, broken, and discarded just as much as glass bangles are today…
Vo: The variety and popularity of ornamentation could be attributed to the outward need to use symbols to differentiate the diverse urban population.
Vo: This form of identification could very well have been used to avoid conflict or confrontation between socially stratified populations. It is also important to note that several raw materials were sued to produce ornaments with the same basic shapes and colors. But a keen eye would be able to differentiate the precise nature of the ornament, its relative value, and the socio-economic status of the wearer. This emphasis on jewelry and class lives on everywhere in South Asia’s contemporary society.
Vo: Many of the figurines found almost caricature an animal by exaggerating such features as the ears of a rabbit, the horn of a rhino, and the meatiness of a pig. But some of the human figurines are breath taking.
Female figures were far more dominant and spectacular than male ones. Several of them had very ornate and beautiful hairstyles. In some instances two huge coils of hair rose from each side of the head. Curly hair was also prevalent on the figurines. Some headless female figurines with joint legs and a cross incised between the legs were recovered. And in other cases prominently projected breasts with slim waists and stretched legs were evident.
Vo: Who would have thought that these statuettes with their intricate hairstyles would be the envy of women today?
Vo: There has always been a strong emphasis on hair as a source of female beauty in the subcontinent. Even today women coil their hair and wear it in a variety of buns and shapes. They exist in a culture that promotes female modesty, but women manage to express their beauty through adornments such as hair jewelry.
Vo: Little did the King Priest know that he was making a fashion statement for years to come.
Men today in the subcontinent wear their beards in a similar style- emulating the impressive statuette. And the use of the shawl, the Ajrak, is an essential part of the apparel of a Sindhi person even now. Men frequently use it as a turban, a cummerbund and wind it around their shoulders. Women use it as a dupatta, blanket, shawl, and sometimes as a makeshift swing for children. The Ajrak is about 2.5-3m long. The trefoil pattern has survived as the popular pattern in modern Ajraks. A modern Ajrak is patterned with intense jewel-like colors. The dominant colors are rich crimson and deep indigo. For Sindhis, both then and now, the Ajrak is a staple for style and craftsmanship.
Vo: Genuinely conscious of style and dress- the people of the city adorned themselves with fillets made of hammered gold. These could have been worn around the forehead. Chokers, long pendant necklaces, rings, earrings, conical hair ornaments, and broaches were symbols of style and prestige.
Vo: Such ornaments were never buried with the dead, but were passed on from generation to generation. Often these jewels were hidden under the floors in the homes of wealthy merchants and goldsmiths.
Vo: Style is not the only thing inspired by this ancient civilization. Referring to the Rig-Veda, the highly regarded Hindu text- today scholars infer that Yoga or some abstract form of it may have traced back to the Indus Valley. We can only close our eyes and wonder.
Vo: Ceramics were extremely popular as well, and had a wide array of uses.
Vo: Fruit stands with narrow tapering, bases, beakers, pointed-base jars, handled cups, jar stands, and perforated cylindrical vessels are a few common examples.
Vo: Also there was a variety of pans, plates, and vases used in domestic settings.
Vo: The painted pottery was characteristically black on a red background- with themes divided between the naturalistic and the geometric. These included trees, birds, fish and other animals- often flamboyantly displayed. The pottery is typically heavy and well made. Several triangular shaped objects, which bear signs of being close to fire, could support the wide use of cooking in Mohenjo Daro.
Vo: And then there are a variety of objects whose use can be inferred by the objects themselves: stone spindle whorls, ivory, bone, metal needles, clay buttons, grinding stones, digging sticks, whorls, flints, blades, bone combs, rubbing or beater stones, clay spoons, maceheads, clay sling missiles, bronze, copper, and silver vessels, arrow points, and shell inlays for furniture or wooden objects.
Vo: A collection of plain as well as painted terra-cotta utensils, both handmade and wheel thrown were found. The ceramics discovered in the upper level of Mohenjo Daro were comparable to sites such as Killi Gul Muhammad, Taugo, and Mundi Gak
Vo: It is important to note that wheel thrown pottery of Mohenjo Daro is some of the most superior found in that era. Utensils were adorned with birds and fish. Intersecting circles and geometrical motifs were common on pots. Dot-tipped rosettes were applied to the vessels for decorative purposes.
Vo: Craftsmanship is embedded in South Asian culture from the start. Today examples of intricate craftsmanship can be seen not only in a marketplace, (show scenes here) but also in revered places of worship. The techniques of glazing blue-green tiles using recipes are still practiced today in many centers throughout the Indus Valley. The tomb of the Muslim saint Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Mulatto is covered with glazed tiles.
Vo:Although it is obvious that the Mohenjodarians were skilled craftsmen- scholars and anthropologists are still guessing the use of many of these crafts today. While some remain a mystery- there are a few those can be identifiable to even the youngest experts.
Vo: Games, toys, and dolls were a pass-time for the young Mohenjodarians. These same toys still entertain the children of the subcontinent today. Highly sought after were the ball and spiral mountain toy, throw-sticks, pottery rattles, dice and terra cotta toy carts. Although ancient in design, modern versions of these artifacts still manage to bring across a smile on the faces of many young South Asians.
Vo: The people of this city were surely rich in culture and art. But were they rich in their spiritual beliefs? The core of most civilizations today revolves around a doctrine, or a religion, in other words- some source of faith. Did the natives of this ancient land have anything that would compare?
Vo: Scholars and anthropologists would all agree that this is a tricky question with no clearly defined answer. Various findings have shown that these people subscribed to a wide array of beliefs. The lack of temples in the city supposes worship at family altars.
Vo: A number of small images have been found that raise the question of religious figurines. Distinct among them are representations of a mother goddess- the Indus equivalent of Inanna or Isis.
Vo: She supposedly bestowed fertility on plants, animals, and men.
Vo: Carved sexual symbols are indicative of her cult: upright phallic stones denoting her consort, and rounded stones with a circular center, representing her womb.
Vo: These may very well be the early prototypes of the Lingam and the Yoni, both Hindu symbols common today in the temples of Shiva and his goddess Devi.
Vo: Three seals found in Mohenjo Daro depict a seated horned deity surrounded by wild animals. This image may foreshadow the Hindu God Shiva in his aspect of Pasupati, the Lord of the Beasts.
Vo: Also, the apparent cult of the bull and the emphasis on absolutions and water that are suggested by the material remains raise the intriguing and unanswerable question of the influence of this early pre-Aryan civilization on Hindu practices in historic India.
Vo: For the most part, there no way of knowing for sure if the Mohenjodarians prescribed to a specific religious order. Much of this still remains a mystery. But it is strongly speculated that rituals and spiritually existed as a part of everyday life.
Vo:Many gaps have yet to be filled regarding the ancient land. Several mysteries remain. Some of the biggest ones revolve around the method of communication used by the natives.
Vo: The elegant Indus script is one of the largest puzzles left to be cracked by scholars and anthropologists today. The surviving records of the writing of these people exist as carvings on steatite seals, small pieces of stone and copper tablets. The total number of the inscribed objects is 4200, but many of these are identical. There are approximately 400 distinct signs used. The majority of the texts are short, the average length being 5 signs and the longest being 26 signs.
Vo: Scholars predict that the main purpose of these seals was to prescribe ownership and the copper tablets may have been used as amulets. Many of these could have been used as tags, which were attached to bales of goods, for the backsides often display traces of packing material. The impressions of the seals most probably served as signatures. Pictorial motifs on the seals include aggressive wild animals like the rhinoceros, water buffalo, crocodile and tiger. Then there are seals with geometric designs including the spoked wheel, swastika, and a circle with a dot. Many scholars today attest to the fact that various seals support the rules of geometry.
Vo: It is difficult to fathom that in this day and age the scholastic world with all their heads together cannot decipher a script that they have held in their hands for some seventy years now. But due to the brevity of the script and the fact there is lack of a bilingual text to refer to- scholars, too, have been granted a fair amount of understanding. Just because three are no defined answers to the Indus script, does not mean that the scholastic world is free from speculation. Innumerous theories about the script float around everyday. Some assume that the language is Aryan, descending from an Indo-European dialect- such as Sanskrit, Punjabi, or Hindi. Many criticize this model because horses were not found on the seals, and Indo-Europeans were constantly utilizing the animal. Others speculate that the language belongs to Munda family of languages. Munda is predominantly spoken in eastern India. But similar to Aryan, the Munda Family does not reflect Harrapan culture at all. And then there are a great number of scholars that adhere to the notion that the language is Dravidian. This is mainly spoken in Southern India, but Brahui is spoken in Pakistan.
Vo: In attempting to crack the script, scholars look beyond the pictorial representation of a physical object- and attempt to make sense of it by figuring out what words the pictures merely represent. To date, no major breakthroughs have been made, but the Dravidian argument is being actively pursued. And the world at large is still left to wonder what language the highly advanced ancient society used in their everyday lives.
Vo:Despite the thorough excavations, our knowledge of this city still remains sketchy. No cemeteries have ever been found at Mohenjo Daro. However, skeletal remains have enabled researchers to speculate about the population of the city. Although the data is still debatable, 11 skulls found in the city have been classified into four anthropological types- Proto-Australoid, Mediterranean, Indo-Mongoloid, and Alpine. It is also estimated that Mohenjo Daro had a population of more than 40,000- making this mysterious city the most thickly populated urban civilization.
Vo: How could this world’s treasure just fade out of our lives? And what caused its decline? Yet another enigma for scholars, the theories of the city’s decline are innumerable.
Vo: The Indus Valley Civilization seems to have declined in the early second millennium. The urban administration of the city had deteriorated by 1750 BC, when the development of homes rapidly declined. Evidence shows that intermittent yet devastating floods hit the civilization around this time. Many believe a final massacre, caused by conquering Aryans may have also hit the city. Still others suggest that the civilization overextended itself, culminating in its collapse under the combined forces of natural disaster AND BARBARIAN incursions. Distinguishing truth from fiction here is a task left to scholars dedicated to the remains of the glorious city.
Vo: The journey to Mohenjo Daro is not nearly over. Passionate anthropologists today continue their pursuit of this city and all the stories behind it. Unfortunately a good degree of the city is buried under salt-water remains today. A fierce water table has prevented anyone from reaching the earlier levels of the ruins.
Approximately there are seven levels of the city buried, seven mysteries to unravel. The main source of defeat today is funding. The governing bodies of third world nations do not have the means to re-examine Mohenjo Daro. And the world at large does not have the interest. It is in some ways amazing that people acknowledge the numerous gifts this civilization has given us, but it is just as amazing that we can walk away from it in its time of need. More efforts toward funding have to be actively pursued in order for Mohenjo to not simply exist in our memories.
Vo: But anyone with knowledge of this mystical place knows that it is not a concept solely of our past, but a reality of our present. This “mound of the dead” has meaning- especially in our modern subcontinent. Wherever one goes, he or she sees a glimpse of …Mohenjo Daro.
Vo: We are carrying on its faith.
Vo: We are trading off its ideas.
Vo: We are trading on its past.
Vo: We are transporting its legacy…
Vo: …and with turning of time, we are getting better and richer…
Vo: …for Mohenjo Daro is about the preservation of tradition…
Vo: …while embracing the new.
Vo: It cannot be buried or forgotten. It echoes louder than ever before in the world today.
“WHEN THE EARTH WAS BARREN AND THE PEOPLE WERE NAKED, THEN OH SINDHU (INDUS RIVER)!, PEOPLE ON YOUR BANKS KNEW HOW TO WEAVE CLOTHES FROM SILK FIBER.”
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